VMware vSAN cache disk failed and how to recover from it

Disclaimer

When I’m doing blog posts based on my home lab, like the following article about a failed vSAN cache disk, then I’m really talking about a home lab. Most of the hard- and software configuration in a home lab isn’t supported, neither from VMware nor from any hardware vendor. There might be parts in my lab, for example, the base servers (DELL PowerEdge) or the Smart Array controllers (HPE), which are listed on the VMware HCL. But for example not my SSD (Samsung and Crucial), or probably any combination of controller and SSDs and/or base server. There are so many people out there in the IT, having homelabs and trying out new hard- and software, testing things and learning. If we build such labs then with the only reason to learn and understand how a certain technology works. Not to do fingerpointing to any vendor. If we blow up our labs, then it’s mostly our own fault, like having cheap disks (my bad because I can’t afford shiny Optane nor datacenter disks) or we’ve screwed the configuration of something. I will never, and I repeat, I will never blame any vendor if my lab blows up because of my fault.

Foreword

Recently I rebuilt my VMware home lab from scratch and with the most recent vSphere version available at this point. I planned to rebuild my lab a long time ago but because of my job and other things I really hadn’t the time to do that. But recently I had to rebuild my lab because I screwed up my vCenter. Yes, I screwed it. So what did that mean? Reinstall all and everything completely from scratch. All my physical ESXi hosts, domain controller, vCenter, Jumphost, and backup server. All these services are running on a standalone ESXi server with some local disks. This server is called my home base. I’ve got some more servers which are running my VMware vSAN environment. I reinstalled these too and reconfigured everything that was needed, like networking and storage.

This week one of my vSAN cluster nodes went into degraded mode because of one of the cache disks failed. I thought, easy, just replacing the cache disk and that’s it. But no, the struggle became real…

What happened?

I’ve got three DELL servers for my vSAN cluster. All servers are equipped with one SSD as cache tier and three SSDs for the capacity tier. Now one cache disk failed because of reasons (I really don’t know why). That was causing vSAN to go into degraded mode as “failures to tolerate” was set to 1. So one failure (the failed cache disk) was compensated. Just for your information in case you didn’t know. If a cache disk of one disk group fails, the whole disk group will become unavailable. In my case, that meant that one-third of the whole vSAN capacity was gone.

What did I to resolve this?

My first idea was to replace the failed cache disk as I’ve got some identical disks as spare drives available. Well, not directly as spare drives, but installed and configured as RAID 5 in my home base ESXi host. So I did a Storage vMotion on all my home base VMs mentioned above to another local RAID 5 datastore, deleted the SSD RAID datastore and removed the disks. The physical replacement of this disks was easy. But telling my degraded vSAN node to accept this disk was a different topic.

Checking the disks

After I installed the “new” disk into the vSAN node I did a rescan on all storage adapters. And there was nothing. Only the already existing capacity disks but no cache disk. So I tried the second and the third identical disk with the same result. Only the capacity disks were visible in vCenter on the host but not the cache disk. What’s wrong here? I knew that the ESXi server only shows empty disks without any volumes, file systems or data on it. But how should I wipe this disk when not even with esxcli the disk is not visible?

As I’m using HPE Smart HBA H240 as my storage controller in the DELL server, I already installed the HPE smart storage administrator CLI tool on all the vSAN nodes. So I was able to look into the storage controller to see what’s happening there (or probably not).

The following command showed me that all disks are here and are fine:

./ssacli ctrl slot=2 pd all show status

But I was still struggling. Why is vCenter still showing only the capacity disks?

Clearing the disk(s)

An article by Cormac Hogan showed me how to reclaim disks for other uses. So i deleted all the partitions on the existing capacity disks, hoping that then the cache disk will also come back online. I read on another blog that wiping all vSAN disks can bring back non-detected disks. But that didn’t help.

First I removed the vSAN node from the vSAN cluster:

esxcli vsan cluster leave

Next I checked with partedUtil how many and what kind of partitions are on the disks:

partedUtil get /vmfs/devices/disks/mpx.vmhba1:C2:T2:L0

Each capacity disks showed two partitions, so I wiped them all:

partedUtil delete /vmfs/devices/disks/mpx.vmhba1:C2:T2:L0 1

partedUtil delete /vmfs/devices/disks/mpx.vmhba1:C2:T2:L0 2

A look into the HPE smart storage administrator CLI tool again showed me that still all physical disks are here. A rescan on all HBA in vCenter on this particular host didn’t help, only the capacity disks were shown.

I looked a little deeper into the storage controller with the command:

./ssacli ctrl slot=2 pd all show detail

That showed something not completely unexpected:

physicaldrive 2I:0:1

Masked from HBA: The drive contains controller configuration data and has been disabled
in order to protect the configuration data. Please run the "modify clearconfigdata"
command on the drive to re-enable it.

This physical drive above was the cache disk I was missing in vCenter. OK, so let’s clear the “configdata” and let’s see what happens then:

./ssacli ctrl slot=2 pd 2I:0:1 modify clearconfigdata

I checked again with “all show detail” and this “modify clearconfigdata” was gone.

Now I was able to rescan all storage adapters in vCenter on this host and that brought back my missed cache disk:

But that was to easy…

After having my cache disk back I went into vSAN configuration in vCenter and claimed the disks. The small one for the cache tier, the bigger ones for the capacity tier. And boom! This particular disk group went into another network partition group. Well done, thank you for nothing!

When you search around the internet for vSAN network partition you will find many forum and blog posts mentioning that this happens if something with the network configuration wasn’t as good as it should be. In my case I checked everything and I changed nothing on the network. So this partitioning issue had another reason. But to be honest I didn’t try to solve that. I wasn’t in the mood for that. I only wanted to bring back my vSAN into a good and healthy state.

I removed this vSAN node from the cluster by just draggin and dropping it out of the cluster. Then I tried to remove it from the inventory. And another boom!

The resource 'eagle.lan.driftar.ch' is in use.

That was the error message in vCenter when I tried to remove the host from inventory. But why? The host is in maintenance mode! Dang it! Let me remove it!

After doing some research on the interwebs I checked also the tasks in vCenter if there is a bit more of information. And I’ve found something:

Cannot remove the host eagle.lan.driftar.ch because it's part of VDS vMotion-DSwitch vSAN-DSwitch.

Well, that’s true. And that was also the obvious reason why I can’t remove the host from inventory. So I had to reconfigure the host networking, putting back the VMKernel ports for vMotion and vSAN to their origin local virtual switches. After that I was finally able to remove the host from the inventory.

Now rebuilding vSAN…

The next steps were easy. I added the host back to the vSAN cluster and configured the VDS for vMotion and vSAN as they were before. Then I went into vSAN configuration and checked the disk group. Lucky me the disk group configured before was still there and healthy, and vSAN claimed it automatically. And no network partitioning this time! All hosts and disk groups in the same network partition group!

After retesting the health onf the vSAN cluster it showed that there is one component in need of a resync. One of my templates was partially on this disk group before failing and is now waiting until the resync completed.

But at least vSAN is working fine again!

Closing words

In the most cases, or probably in all cases, replacing a disk in vSAN should be easy. Usually you will replace a used disk against a new and empty disk other than me. But that doesn’t mean you can’t unless you know what to do. I’m glad if this blog post helped you solving the issue.

If you follow the steps described in the VMware Knowledge Base then you should be fine:

Recap of the latest VMware vSphere 6.7 releases

vSphere 6.7

Oh boy, what a week! Some say that winter is now finally gone, nice and warm weather, not wearing winter jackets anymore. But hey, i’m not a weatherman. When you’re sitting in the office i think it doesn’t matter if it’s raining or snowing outside. Just kidding… Let’s get back to business.

There was some rumor about the next upcoming version. Will it be version 7? Or something just above 6.5? VMware did release several new products versions! And it’s all with version number 6.7. What a list! It’s one of those email notifications that I usually like to scroll down, a little more, and more and more, to get all the news soaked up like a sponge. I’d like to dive in right now and provide you a recap of this weeks VMware releases. And as i said, it’s quite a list. I’ll pick out just some new key features. You can find the full release news on the VMware Blogs (links provided here).

New product versions

vSphere 6.7

  • several new APIs that improve the efficiency and experience to deploy vCenter, to deploy multiple vCenters based on a template, to make management of vCenter Server Appliance significantly easier, as well as for backup and restore
  • significantly simplifies the vCenter Server topology through vCenter with embedded platform services controller in enhanced linked mode
  • 2X faster performance in vCenter operations per second
  • 3X reduction in memory usage
  • 3X faster DRS-related operations (e.g. power-on virtual machine)
  • vSphere 6.7 improves efficiency when updating ESXi hosts, significantly reducing maintenance time by eliminating one of two reboots normally required for major version upgrades (Single Reboot). In addition to that, vSphere Quick Boot is a new innovation that restarts the ESXi hypervisor without rebooting the physical host, skipping time-consuming hardware initialization
  • The HTML5-based vSphere Client provides a modern user interface experience that is both responsive and easy to use, and it’s now including other key functionality like managing NSX, vSAN, VUM as well as third-party components.
  • enabling encrypted vMotion across different vCenter instances
  • enhancements to Nvidia GRID vGPU
  • vSphere 6.7 introduces vCenter Server Hybrid Linked Mode, which makes it easy and simple for customers to have unified visibility and manageability across an on-premises vSphere environment running on one version and a vSphere-based public cloud environment, such as VMware Cloud on AWS, running on a different version of vSphere.
  • vSphere 6.7 also introduces Cross-Cloud Cold and Hot Migration
  • Delivers a new capability that is key for the hybrid cloud, called Per-VM EVC

More information here: Introducing VMware vSphere 6.7 / VMware Blogs

vSAN 6.7

  • vSAN 6.7 provides intuitive operations that align with other VMware products from a UI and workflow perspective to provide a “one team, one tool” experience
  • Iintroduces a new HTML5 UI based on the “Clarity” framework as seen in other VMware products (All products in the VMware portfolio are moving toward this UI framework)
  • A new feature known as “vRealize Operations within vCenter” provides an easy way for customers to see vRealize intelligence directly in the vSphere Client
  • vSAN 6.7 now expands the flexibility of the vSAN iSCSI service to support Windows Server Failover Clusters (WSFC)
  • vSAN 6.7 introduces an all-new Adaptive Resync feature to ensure a fair-share of resources are available for VM I/Os and Resync I/Os during dynamic changes in load on the system
  • Optimizes the de-staging mechanism, resulting in data that “drains” more quickly from the write buffer to the capacity tier.  The ability to de-stage this data quickly allows the cache tier to accept new I/O, which reduces or eliminates periods of congestion
  • New health checks include:
    • Maintenance mode verification ensures proper decommission state
    • Consistent configuration verification for advanced settings
    • vSAN and vMotion network connectivity checks improved
    • Improved vSAN Health service installation check
    • Improved physical disk health check combines multiple checks (software, physical, metadata) into a single notification
    • Firmware check is independent from driver check

More information here: What’s New with VMware vSAN 6.7 / VMware Blogs and also here: Extending Hybrid Cloud Leadership with vSAN 6.7

vCenter Server 6.7

  • The vSphere Client (HTML5) is full of new workflows and closer to feature parity
  • built-in file-based vCenter Server backup now includes a scheduler

Installation

  • No load balancer required for high availability and fully supports native vCenter Server High Availability.
  • SSO Site boundary removal provides flexibility of placement.
  • Supports vSphere scale maximums.
  • Allows for 15 deployments in a vSphere Single Sign-On Domain.
  • Reduces the number of nodes to manage and maintain.

Migration

  • vSphere 6.7 is also the last release to include vCenter Server for Windows, which has been deprecated.
  • migrate to the vCenter Server Appliance with the built-in Migration Tool
  • Deploy & import all data
  • Deploy & import data in the background
  • Customers will also get an estimated time of how long each option will take when migrating

Upgrading

  • vSphere 6.7. will support upgrades and migrations only from vSphere 6.0 or 6.5
  • vSphere 5.5 does not have a direct upgrade path to vSphere 6.7
  • Upgrade path: vSphere 5.5 to vSphere 6.0 or 6.5, and then to vSphere 6.7
  • vCenter Server 6.0 or 6.5 managing ESXi 5.5 hosts cannot be upgraded or migrated until the hosts have been upgraded to at least ESXi 6.0
  • Reminder: end of general support for vSphere 5.5 is September 19, 2018.

Monitoring and Management

  • vSphere Appliance Management Interface (VAMI) on port 5480 has received an update to the Clarity UI
  • There is now a tab dedicated to monitoring. Here you can see CPU, memory, network, database and disk utilization.
  • Another new tab called Services is also within the VAMI, giving the option to start, stop, and restart vCenter Server services if needed
  • vSphere 6.7 also marks the final release of the vSphere Web Client (Flash). Some of the newer workflows in the updated vSphere HTML5 Client release include:
    • vSphere Update Manager
    • Content Library
    • vSAN
    • Storage Policies
    • Host Profiles
    • vDS Topology Diagram
    • Licensing

More information here: Introducing vCenter Server 6.7 / VMware Blogs

vSphere with Operations Management 6.7

  • new plugin for the vSphere Client. This plugin is available out-of-the-box and provides some great new functionality
  • When interacting with this plugin, you will be greeted with 6 vRealize Operations Manager (vROps) dashboards directly in the vSphere client
  • overview, cluster view, and alerts for both vCenter and vSAN views
  • The new Quick Start page is making it easier to get directly to the data you need to
  • four use cases: Optimize Performance, Optimize Capacity, Troubleshoot, and Manage Configuration
  • The Workload Optimization dashboard was updated. Workload Optimization takes predictive analytics and uses them in conjunction with vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) to move workloads between clusters. New with vROps 6.7, you can now fine tune the configuration for workload optimization
  • vROps 6.7 introduced a completely new capacity engine that is smarter and much faster

More information here: vSphere with Operations Management 6.7 / VMware Blogs

vSphere 6.7 Security

  • TPM 2.0 support for ESXi
  • Virtual TPM 2.0 for VMs
  • Support for Microsoft Virtualization Based Security
  • UI updates (combined all encryption functions (VM Encryption, vMotion Encryption) into one panel in VM Options)
  • Multiple SYSLOG targets
  • FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules – by default!

More information here: vSphere 6.7 Security / VMware Blogs

Developer and Automation Interfaces for vSphere 6.7

  • Added functionality to existing APIs in vSphere 6.7
  • Coverage of new areas
  • Appliance API updates: from prechecks to staging to installation and validation, it’s all available by API now
  • vCenter API updates: new APIs have been added to interact with the VM’s guest operating system (OS), viewing Storage Policy Based Management (SPBM) policies, and managing vCenter server services
  • also a handful of new APIs to handle the deployment and lifecycle of the vCenter server
  • a handful of updates to the vSphere Web Services (SOAP) APIs as well

More information here: Developer and Automation Interfaces for vSphere 6.7 / VMware Blogs

Faster Lifecycle Management Operations in VMware vSphere 6.7

  • brand-new Update Manager interface which is now part of the HTML5 Client
  • Update Manager in vSphere 6.7 keeps VMware ESXi 6.0 to 6.7 hosts reliable and secure
  • the new UI provides a much more streamlined remediation process, requiring just a few clicks to begin the procedure. It’s not just a port from the old Flash client
  • Hosts that are currently on ESXi 6.5 will be upgraded to 6.7 significantly faster than ever before
  • Several optimizations have been made for that upgrade path, including eliminating one of two reboots traditionally required for a host upgrade
  • Quick Boot eliminates the time-consuming hardware initialization phase by shutting down ESXi in an orderly manner and then immediately re-starting it

More information here: Faster Lifecycle Management Operations in VMware vSphere 6.7 / VMware Blogs

vSphere 6.7 for Enterprise Applications

  • include support for Persistent Memory (PMEM) and enhanced support for Remote Directory Memory Access (RDMA)
  • PMEM is a new layer called Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) and sits between NAND flash and DRAM, providing faster performance relative to NAND flash but also providing the non-volatility not typically found in traditional memory offerings
  • new protocol support for Remote Direct memory Access (RDMA) over Converged Ethernet, or RoCE (pronounced “rocky”) v2, a new software Fiber Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) adapter, and iSCSI Extension for RDMA (iSER)

More information here: vSphere 6.7 for Enterprise Applications / VMware Blogs

How to delete and change VMware vSAN disk groups

Since few months i’m working with VMware vSAN in my own vSphere homelab. And i tell you, i really like vSAN! If you’re looking for an easy, affordable, very well performing and scalable storage solution, there you go. VMware vSAN is ready to take all your workloads. It doesn’t matter if it’s just your nested lab environment, or something more serious like a Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), big data or business critical applications like SQL databases and Microsoft Exchange servers.

How does vSAN work?

VMware vSAN takes the local disks of an ESXi hosts and puts them in a storage pool, a so called disk group. Put all disk groups of your ESXi hosts together in a cluster and you’ve got a vSAN datastore. It’s that easy. And it’s also easy to make changes to those disk pools. Add disks, remove disks, or change the complete layout of a disk pool.

Read moreHow to delete and change VMware vSAN disk groups

Veeam Live Webinar – Alles über VMware vSAN

Vor einiger Zeit wurde ich von Veeam angefragt ob ich ein Live Webinar durchführen möchte. Nun, ich musste da nicht lange überlegen und habe zugesagt. Die Ideen sprudelten nur so aus mir raus. Naja, fast. Um ehrlich zu sein hatte ich plötzlich eine ziemliche Blockade und meine Musse hat sich spontan in den Kurzurlaub verabschiedet…

Es gibt hunderte Themen über die ich gerne sprechen würde. Seien das grössere technische Dinge oder doch eher die kleinen Tipps und Tricks die einem Admin das Leben etwas eifacher machen. Doch vieles wurde bereits in deutsch- oder englischsprachigen Webinars abgedeckt. Und ich wollte auch nicht einfach etwas aufwärmen sondern was neues bringen. Mein aktuelles Thema ist den meisten von euch sicher nicht neu. Jedoch wurde bis jetzt noch nicht im Rahmen eines Live Webinars darüber gesprochen.

Webinar mit dem VMware vExpert: Alles über das Thema VMware vSAN

Über dieses Thema werde ich am Live Webinar sprechen. Das Webinar dauert rund eine Stunde. Stefano Heisig, Senior System Engineer bei Veeam, euch zeigen wie Veeam mit vSAN umgeht und wie man VMs sichern kann. Veeam ist neuerding offiziell für VMware vSAN zertifiziert! Mein Teil wird viele Punkte rund um VMware vSAN abdecken. Und natürlich bleibt auch noch genügend Zeit für Fragen.

Anmeldung zum Webinar

Wann: Dienstag, 26.09.2017, um 10:00 Uhr

Wo: hier => https://www.veeam.com/de/videos/webinar-everything-about-vmware-vsan-10381.html

Ich freue mich auf eure Teilnahme und wünsche euch noch einen guten Rest der Woche!

VMware – vSAN Deploy and Manage course – Day 3

Today it was the last day in our VMware vSAN Deploy and Manage course. Nevertheless today we have given everything again. We had a deep dive in designing vSAN solutions, we discussed the key topics in design decisions and also played around with some what-if scenarios. But as every day we kicked off with some review what we discovered yesterday, and again to make for everyone clear what vSAN really is.

Day 3

Daily review

What is vSAN:

  • Software Defined Storage
  • Hyper Converged Infrastructure
  • Network Storage Topology
  • Hypervisor integrated
    • That means less latency
    • no dependencies on VMs
    • support
    • distributed
  • local disks presenting one datastore per cluster

Use cases:

  • VDI (licensing, offload of IOPS, scalable)
  • Test / DEv environments (projects, easy, growth)
  • Branch Office / Remote Office (same solution, backup)

Install vSAN:

  • Simple, with GUI, all from the web client (with just few clicks)
  • install vSphere
  • create a Cluster
  • set a VMkernel for vSAN
  • disable HA
  • claim disks
    • create disk groups
    • claim them as cache / capacity tier
  • enable vSAN

What’s in the default vSAN policy:

  • FTT = 1
  • Stripes = 1
  • No reservation (neither cache nor capacity)
  • Thin provisioning

What is a Fault Domain:

  • an area which may can fail
  • plan to recover impact of Ops
    • Rack awareness
    • Site awerness

Availability:

In vSAN there are two states of compliance…

  • Compliant
  • non compliant
    • Absent => wait for 60 minutes, then rebuild
    • Degraded => rebuild immediately

What-if failures:

  • Cache disk fails => lose disk group => latency increases
  • Capacity disk fails => degraded => rebuild => VM back online
  • Controller => host issue => HA response
  • Host outtage (complete loss of host) => HA response => VM response

Module 7 Lesson 2 – Troubleshooting

Some topics we covered already yesterday. Today it was also some repetition and a quick overview about troubleshooting and some of the tools we discovered yesterday. There are so many tools for troubleshooting available, either already built-in or community driven, i think the list could be longer. But at least some of the most known tools i will provide you with this list.

  • vCenter (you don’t say…)
  • vROPS
  • esxtop
  • Wireshark (yes indeed; capture packets on ESXi and analyze them with Wireshark => pcap)
  • vSAN Observer (based on Ruby)
  • RVC (Ruby vSphere Console)
  • Health Service Plugin
  • vCheck
  • PowerCLI scripts (combined with Onyx)

A cool tool indeed is vCheck. It’s based on Powershell scripts and runs against your vSphere infrastructure (there are scripts for other stuff too). You schedule the scripts and you can reveive notifications about changes, issues (before they become a real deal). So when you arrive in your office you already know what’s going on (or what’s not). Also worth to mention is vSAN Observer. It’s already there, just start it and access the built-in webserver to get an overview what’s going on in your vSAN environment.

Module 8 -Stretched Cluster

After doing some work in the labs we talked about design. And having a stretched cluster is also a question of design, how to create a solution which covers rack outtages or even a complete site outtage. You can do that with a stretched cluster. And the failover happens automatic (what may probably not the best solution in every fail over situation…).

When planning a stretched cluster you have to concern about resources. You need 50% spare capacity on both sites (talking about two racks or two sites) in HA admission control. Imagine that one site / rack should keep the other one online, and the stuff which is already running on the secondary site too.

You don’t have to use SRM (Site Recovery Manager) for a failover. vSAN does that for you automatically. If you use SRM then you have to have a recovery plan for each and every VM. Thats a lot of planning and even checks if there are new or changed VMs. Not to think about the costs. You need SRM licenses and a second vCenter license.

Talking about the vSAN witness. A witness is a separate ESXi box. This can be a physical server with ESXi which needs to be licensed. This physical server can’t be a member of a cluster, but it can run some VMs on it. Or you can get a witness appliance, which represents a special ESXi as an appliance, which runs on a ESXi server. This appliance cannot run VMs on it.

You can have a ROBO vSAN cluster in your remote office / branch office which consists only of two ESXi hosts in this cluster. If you’re doing so you have to have a witness host / appliance in your main office site. You always need somewhere a witness to have the quorum in case of an HA event. And remember the 5 heartbeats. In the case of an outtage, after 5 missed hearbeats your host is gone and a failover happens.

Module 10 – Designing a vSAN deployment

That’s not a random list of IT buzzwords, folks. You have to consider these key points when you’re designing a vSAN solution (probably any other scalable solution too).

Availability Management
Managability Virtual machines
Performance Compute
Recoverability Network
Security Storage

Let me give you some more things to consider. In the way of designing a vSAN solution you will have to find answers to these questions. Some answers you will get from your customer when talking with him about a solution for his specific needs. Some other answers you will find when you design the solution. And you will find some more questions too…

Requirements (must have / be / do)

  • “RPO of 15 minutes”
  • “RTO of 5 minutes”
  • Location of data / data center

Constraints (design decisions)

  • “Must work with existing network hardware”
  • “Must work at this site”

Assumptions

  • “We have enough bandwith”

Risks

  • “If the bandwith is not enough => risk of not meeting the SLA”

If you covered the topics above (and the bullet points are just ideas, there are lot more to cover) then you will proceed with the design.

Conception

Logical

  • “Keep data at this location”
  • “We want two sites, one for failover”
  • Should also be vendor independent

Physical

  • Here you can come in with the vendor and create the solution
  • vSAN here, stretched cluster there
  • Network links from here to here
  • Backup then with this
  • and so on…

And if you are searching some benchmark tools for your newly created solution, there you go:

  • HCIBench (https://labs.vmware.com/flings/hcibench)
    • simplify and accelerate customer POC performance testing
    • not only a benchmark tool designed for Virtual SAN
    • evaluate the performance of all kinds of Hyper-Converged Infrastructure Storage in vSphere
  • HammerDB (http://www.hammerdb.com/)
    • open source database load testing and benchmarking tool
    • Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, TimesTen, MySQL, MariaDB,  PostgreSQL
    • Postgres Plus Advanced Server, Greenplum, Redis
    • Amazon Aurora and Redshift and Trafodion SQL on Hadoop

Here you can find the other blog posts about the vSAN deploy and manage course: